浅析杨树的腐烂病及其防治

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一、杨树腐烂病发生症状。杨树干部和枝条是烂皮病发生部位。表现为干腐和(枯梢)枯枝两种类型。 1. The symptoms of poplar rot disease. Poplar cadres and branches are the sites of rotten skin disease. They are two types: dry rot and dead branches. 1、干腐病:主要发生于主杆、大枝及分叉处。发病初期是暗褐色,水渍病斑,略肿胀,皮层组织腐烂变软,皮下有酒糟味,以手压之有水渗出,后失水下陷,有时病部树皮溃裂,甚至变为丝状,病斑有时有明显的黑褐色边缘。在适宜条件下,纵向扩展较横向快。当病部包围树干一周时,其以上部分即行枯死,皮层腐烂,纤维分离如麻状,易自木质部边材也变色。后期病斑上生出许多针头状大小突起,即病菌分生孢子器。潮湿天气时,自分生孢子器孔口挤出黄色、橙色或红色卷丝状分生孢子角。 1, dry rot disease: occurs mainly in main stem, big branch and bifurcation. Early onset is dark brown, water stains, slightly swollen, cortex tissue decay and soft, subcutaneous wine distiller's taste, water exudation in the hand, and then the fall of water, sometimes the bark of the disease and even filamentous, and the spots sometimes have obvious black brown edges. Under suitable conditions, the longitudinal expansion is faster than that in the transverse direction. When the disease department surrounds the trunk for a week, the above parts will be withered away, the cortex will rot and the fibers will be separated from the wood. There are many needles in the later stages of the disease, namely the conidia. In wet weather, conidia openings of yellow, orange or red filamentous conidia can be extruded. 2、枯梢病:主要发生在苗木,幼树及大树枝条上。发病初期呈暗灰色,病部迅速扩展,环绕一周后,上部枝条枯死。 2. Stem blight: occurs mainly in seedlings, saplings and branches. The early stage of the disease was dark grey, and the disease rapidly expanded. After a week, the upper branches withered away. 二、杨树腐烂病病源及发病规律 Two, the source and regularity of the disease of poplar rot 该病害主要是子囊菌亚门的污黑皮壳菌,其无性型为半知菌亚门的金黄色壳囊孢菌。以菌丝体和未成熟的子实体在病组织内越冬。越冬病斑内产生分生孢子器和成熟的分生孢子,成为当年侵染的主要来源。翌年4月开始发病,5月下旬至6月形成第一个发病高峰。7-8月气温增高时病势减缓,9月出现第2个发病高峰,此时病菌来源于当年春季病斑形成的分生孢子,10月以后停止。春季气温达10℃以上,相对湿度在60%以上时,病害开始发生;24-28℃时最适宜发病。病菌从伤口或皮孔进入,潜育期约1个月。从发病到形成分生孢子期需要2-3个月,秋季在病斑上形成囊腔和子囊孢子。潜伏侵染是杨树溃疡病的重要特点,子囊孢靠风力传播至寄主皮层上,由伤口侵入,过冬后再显病症。当树势衰弱时,有利于发生病害。当年在健壮的树上发病的病斑,翌年有些可以自然愈合。同一株病树,阳面病斑多于阴面。未移植的苗木一般不发病或病害很轻。一经移植,水分失去平衡,树势衰弱,病害便易于发生。春季发病高峰是前年秋季侵染造成的结果,而不是当年春季侵染的缘故。春季造林时,初定植幼林上的新病斑也是头年在苗圃感染所致。所以,苗木带菌数量与新林地幼树的发病程度密切相关。干旱瘠薄的立地条件是发病的重要诱因,也是我国干旱和半干旱的“三北”地区溃疡病特别普遍而严重的主要原因。起苗时大量伤根和造林时苗木大量失水,是初栽幼树易于发病的内在原因。杨树的不同种类及品系对溃疡病的抗性有明显差异。白杨派树种抗病,黑杨派树种抗性中等,而青杨派树种则多易感病。青杨派与黑杨派树种的杂交品系绝大多数也是较易感病的。青杨、小青杨、群众杨、北京杨都是高度感病的杨树。在抗病的派别中,有的品系是感病的,如毛白杨是较抗病的树种,其中有些品系(三倍体毛白杨)却十分感病。在感病类型中也有抗病品系。同时,树种的感病性与其所在环境条件关系也非常密切。 The disease is mainly asexual fungus, asexual type, and its asexual type is golden yellow cyst fungus. It overwintered in mycelia and immature fruiting bodies in disease tissues. The conidia and mature conidia were produced in the disease spots of overwintering, which became the main source of infection in the year. The onset of the disease began in April of next year, and the first peak occurred from late May to June. When the temperature increased in 7-8 months, the disease slowed down. In September, there were second peaks of disease. The pathogen came from the conidium formed in the spring disease spot in the year of the year, and stopped after October. When the temperature is above 10 C in spring and the relative humidity is above 60%, the disease will begin to occur. It is the most suitable onset at 24-28 C. The pathogen enters from the wound or lenticels, and the incubation period is about 1 months. It takes 2-3 months from onset to formation of conidia. Latent infection is an important characteristic of poplar canker. The sporospore transmitted to the host cortex by wind force, invaded by the wound, and showed symptoms after winter. When the tree is weak, it is beneficial to the occurrence of disease. The disease spots on the strong tree in those years could heal naturally. In the same disease tree, the disease spots on the Yang face are more than the shady side. Untransplanted seedlings usually do not develop diseases or diseases are very light. Once transplanted, the water is out of balance, and the tree is weak. The peak of spring is the result of infection in autumn, but not in spring. During spring afforestation, new disease spots on young plantations were also caused by infection in nursery gardens. Therefore, the number of bacteria carrying seedlings is closely related to the incidence of new woodland young trees. The arid and barren site condition is an important cause of the disease, and it is also the main cause of the ulceration in the arid and semi-arid area of the "Three North" areas. A large number of seedlings were damaged when the roots were damaged and the seedlings were damaged. The resistance of poplar varieties and strains to canker disease is different. The poplar tree species are resistant to disease, while the poplar tree species are moderately resistant, while the poplar tree species are susceptible to disease. The vast majority of hybrid strains of Cathay poplar and black poplar species are also susceptible. Poplar, poplar, Populus Populus and Beijing poplar are highly susceptible poplars. Among the resistant groups, some strains are susceptible. For example, white poplar is a more resistant tree species. Some strains (triploid Populus tomentosa) are very susceptible. There are also disease resistant strains in the type of sense of disease. At the same time, the disease susceptibility of tree species is closely related to its environmental conditions.
关键字:杨树