苗木扦插技术、方法及注意事项

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嫩枝扦插是指在苗木的生长季节,采用当年生半成熟的枝条作为插条的扦插方法,它主要适用于常绿和半常绿木本花卉。如茶花、杜鹃、金叶女贞、桂花、罗汉松、红叶石楠、红豆杉、海桐、月季、雪松、柏类等。对于生根困难的个别落叶树如银杏,也宜采用嫩枝扦插的办法。嫩枝扦插的具体操作方法是:在苗木生长旺盛季节,剪取当年生半木质化枝条,按2节至4节(一片或一对叶为一节)为一段,每段长约10厘米左右,上面保留1至2片叶,下部去掉1至2片叶。叶片大的树种如茶花、桂花、石楠可将叶片剪去1/2,然后将插条下端剪或者削成斜口,再将插条按几十根一把用绳子扎好,最后将插条均匀粘上由干净黄土加杀菌剂、生根剂和水调配成的泥浆,待泥浆稍干后即可到备好的苗床进行扦插。嫩枝扦插要求苗床土要细碎、松软、平整,同时去除杂草和其他杂质,并对土壤喷药、消毒、杀虫。 The softwood cuttage refers to the cutting method used in the growing season of the seedlings. It is mainly suitable for evergreen and semi evergreen woody flowers. Such as camellia, Rhododendron, Ligustrum lucidum, Osmanthus fragrans, pines, red leaf Shi Nan, yew, tung tree, rose, cedar, cypress, etc. Softwood cuttings should also be applied to individual deciduous trees such as ginkgo. The specific operation method of the cuttage is to cut the semi lignification branch of the year in the growing season, with 2 to 4 sections (one or one pair of leaves) as one section, about 10 centimeters long each, 1 to 2 leaves, and 1 to 2 leaves in the lower part. The leaves of large leaves such as tea, osmanthus and Photinia can be cut off 1/2, then cut or cut into the slanting mouth at the bottom, then the cuttings are tied up with dozens of ropes, and then the cuttings are evenly glued to the mud with a clean loess with fungicides, rooting agents and water, and the slurries can be made to the prepared bed after the mud is dry. Cutting. Softwood cutting requires that the seedbed soil be finely broken, soft and smooth, remove weeds and other impurities at the same time, and spray, disinfect and kill the soil. 扦插深度为5厘米左右。扦插完毕后洒透水,插条叶面水珠干后立即在苗床再喷施一次农药杀菌杀虫,然后插上竹弓,盖上塑料薄膜,之后再插一些竹弓,在竹弓上面盖上黑色遮阴网。薄膜、遮阴网都要固定好。支撑遮阴网的竹弓比支撑薄膜的竹弓要高出15厘米至20厘米,以防遮阴网的热量传到薄膜里面,烫伤苗木。 The cuttage depth is about 5 centimeters. After the cuttage, the water is sprinkled, and the leaf surface water drops immediately after the spraying of the insecticidal insecticide in the seedbed. Then the bamboo bow is inserted, the plastic film is covered, and then some bamboo bow is inserted, and the black shade net is covered on the bamboo bow. The film and shading network should be fixed. The bamboo bow supporting the shading net is 15 centimeters to 20 centimeters higher than that of the supporting membrane, in order to prevent the heat of the shading net from reaching the film and scalding the seedlings. 至此,扦插工作全部完成。 At this point, the cutting work is complete. 扦插结束后,还要经常对苗床进行检查护理,查看苗床所盖薄膜、遮阴网是否被虫、鼠咬破,被风吹开。每隔15天左右揭开薄膜和遮阴网查看一次,并喷施农药杀菌杀虫,再重新将薄膜和遮阴网盖好。如果发现苗床土壤干燥则要在喷药之前先洒一些水,待叶面水干后再喷农药。一般揭膜喷药2次至3次后,插条就已生根成活,之后可隔1至2个月打一次药。插条成活后可考虑揭膜。在正式揭膜之前,要选择阴雨天,先揭开苗床一头或两头的薄膜通风炼苗数日,再全部揭掉薄膜。揭膜后遮阴网仍要覆盖。上半年扦插的苗木,遮阴网一直盖到晚秋才能揭掉,因为嫩苗经不起强光曝晒。特别值得一提的是金叶女贞、金森女贞是易于感病的苗木,揭膜要及时,一般插后20天左右,有90%左右生根就可以开始炼苗揭膜了,揭掉薄膜后,马上要喷一次杀菌剂防病,7至10天喷一次,连喷3至4次即可。 After cutting, check the nursery bed regularly to check whether the film covered by the seedbed and the shading net are broken by insects or rats and blown away by the wind. Every 15 days, the film and shading net will be exposed once again. Pesticide and insecticide will be sprayed and the film and shading net will be covered again. If it is found that the soil is dry, sprinkle some water before spraying, and then spray the pesticide after drying. Generally, after cutting the film 2 times to 3 times, the cuttings have been rooted and survived, and then they can be taken 1 to 2 months later. When the cuttings are alive, the film can be taken into consideration. Before uncovering the film, we should choose a rainy day. First, we can expose the seedlings in one or both of the beds for several days, and then remove the film. The shading net is still covered after the film is uncovered. In the first half of the year, the shading net of cuttings had been covered until late autumn because the seedlings could not withstand strong sunlight. Especially worth mentioning is the golden leaf Ligustrum lucidum, Higginson Ligustrum lucidum is easy to feel the disease of the seedling, the film should be timely, 20 days after the general insertion, about 90% of the roots can begin to start the film, after removing the film, immediately spray a fungicide to prevent disease, 7 to 10 days to spray once, Lian Zhen 3 to 4 times.
关键字:苗木 花卉