银杏树常见病虫害防治及防治措施

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Common diseases and insect pests prevention and control measures of Ginkgo biloba
银杏树的常见病虫害包括根腐病、茎腐病、叶枯病等苗圃病虫害的发生原因、症状表现及防治方法;银杏大蚕蛾、樟蚕等银杏虫害的生物学特征及其防治办法;
The common diseases and insect pests of Ginkgo biloba include root rot, stem rot, leaf blight and other diseases and insect pests in nursery, symptoms and control methods, biological characteristics of Ginkgo biloba moth, Camphor silkworm and other insect pests and their control methods.
苗圃病虫害的防治
Prevention and control of diseases and pests in nursery
银杏苗圃病害主要有根腐病、茎腐病、叶枯病。虫害主要是地老虎、金龟子等。
The main diseases of ginkgo nursery include root rot, stem rot and leaf blight. Insect pests are mainly tigers, Scarab and so on.
1.根腐病
1. rotten diseases
一般在6月份发生,病原菌为镰刀菌。病菌从根部侵入,使根部腐烂脱皮,木质部呈黑褐色,叶片逐渐萎蔫、干枯。排水不良、苗木过密的阴湿圃地发生率较高。其防治方法是:①及时拔掉病株烧毁;②发病期用70%托布津1000倍液喷雾;③及时排除积水,搞好间苗。
Usually occurs in June, the pathogen is Fusarium. The pathogen invades from the root and causes the root to rot and peel, the xylem to be dark brown, and the leaves to wither and wither gradually. There was a high incidence of wet drainage in poor drainage and overdense seedlings. The prevention and cure methods are as follows: 1. Pulling out the diseased plant and burning it in time; 2. Spraying it with 70% tobrazine 1000 times liquid at the onset stage; 3. eliminating the accumulated water in time and improving the seedlings.
2.茎腐病
2. stem rot
有两种情况:①幼苗出土后苗木木质化程度低,病菌易侵入苗茎,尤其在无遮阴措施,不能及时浇水降低地表温度的情况下,更易感染。病菌侵入苗茎后,产生褐色斑点,病斑逐渐扩大,引起茎部腐烂,呈猝倒状。一般发生在6月上旬。其防治方法一是及时浇水;二是连喷3次800倍多菌灵进行防治。②7月份左右,连续降雨和持续高温,使苗木茎部灼伤,苗木茎部变褐色,内皮层组织腐烂,逐渐扩展致根部,叶片逐渐死亡下垂。低洼易积水的苗圃地较易发生。其防治方法一是高温天气要搭阴棚在苗木行间覆草降低土壤温度,有条件的及时灌溉。阴雨天要注意排水,二是发病期间喷1%硫酸亚铁溶液,控制蔓延,三是防止人为碰伤苗木。
There are two situations: 1. The lignification degree of seedlings is low after they are unearthed, and the pathogens are easy to invade the stems of seedlings, especially in the absence of shading measures and timely watering to reduce the surface temperature. After the pathogen invaded the stem of the seedling, it produced brown spots, which gradually expanded and caused the stem to rot, showing sudden collapse. It usually occurs in early June. One of its prevention and treatment methods is timely watering; the two is spraying 3 times 800 times carbendazim for prevention and treatment. (2) Around July, continuous rainfall and persistent high temperature caused burns to the stem, browning of the stem, decay of the endothelial tissue, gradual expansion to the root, leaf death and droop. Low lying and easy to accumulate water nursery is easy to happen. One of the control methods is to put up a shady shed to cover grass between rows of seedlings to reduce soil temperature in high temperature weather and to irrigate in time when conditions are available. We should pay attention to drainage in rainy days, spray 1% ferrous sulfate solution during the onset of disease, control the spread, and prevent artificial injury to seedlings.
3.叶枯病
3. leaf blight
病害初期叶先端变黄,黄色部位逐渐变褐坏死,逐步扩展为整个叶片变为褐色脱落。一般苗木生长过密、通风不良的苗圃地发生较严重。其防治方法是:发病时喷多菌灵800倍液。
In the early stage of the disease, the leaf tip became yellow, the yellow part became brown and necrotic, and the whole leaf became brown and shedding. Generally, nursery stock with excessive growth and poorly ventilated seedlings is more serious. The prevention and cure method is: 800 times liquid of carbendazim.
4.虫害防治
4. pest control
①土壤消毒。对钙质土壤每667㎡用过筛的农用硫酸亚铁细粉15㎏或喷洒多菌灵和2.5%的敌百虫粉2.5~3㎏。对非钙质土用过筛的熟石炭粉15~20㎏进行消毒;
Soil disinfection. For calcareous soils, 15_of screened agricultural ferrous sulfate powder or 2.5_of Carbendazim and 2.5% of trichlorfon powder were sprayed every 667_. Disinfection of 15~20 KC of sifted carbon powder for non calcareous soil was carried out.
②堆青草拌敌敌畏等药液诱杀害虫。
2. Stir up grass and grass with dichlorvos and other liquid to kill pests.